ga-ab-kar-re: (cf., gaba-kar).

ga-áb-kù-ga: milk from pure cows ('milk' + 'cow' + 'pure' + genitive).

ga-áb-sig7-ga: milk from beautiful cows ('milk' + 'cow' + 'beautiful' + genitive).

ga-an-tuš: (cf., gan-tuš).

ga-an...za(-za): to drip; to bubble ('milk' + 'sky, air' + 'to make a repetitive noise').

ga-an-zír[ŠÈ-KA]: entrance to the netherworld (cf., ganzer).

ga-àr-ra: powdered or finely grated cheese ('milk' + 'to grind' + nominative).

ga-arhuš-a(-ke4): the milk of mercy ('milk' + 'womb; compassion' + genitive).

ga-ba-al...dù: to challenge, contradict, quarrel (either related to gaba, 'rival' or Akkadian qablum, 'controversy' + 'to make').

ga-ba...gtildeál: (cf., gaba...gtildeál).

ga-ba-kar-re: (cf., gaba-kar).

ga-ba-ra-hum: revolt (gaba, 'rival' + 'to overflow' + 'to wrestle, smash, break').

ga-du(7): lintel (above a door) (? + du7, 'to finish, complete').

ga-eš8: merchantman (compare ga-sa10).

ga...gu7: to nurse/feed with milk ('milk' + 'to feed').

ga-gu7-a: suckling foal ('milk' + 'to feed' + nominative).

ga-kug: (cultically) pure milk ('milk' + 'pure').

ga-murx[LAK 490]: a type of cheese ('milk' + 'strained in cheesecloth' ?).

ga-nam-me-àm: it is indeed (affirmative + 3rd person pronoun + 'to be').

ga-ra-an-da: bearing fruit (cf., gurun).

ga-rašsar: leek(s) (Akk. loanword).

ga-sa10: tradesman ('let me buy!').

ga-sub-ba: milk sucking ('milk' + 'to suck' + nominative).

ga-ša-an: lady (cf., gašan).

ga-še-a: milk for barley porridge; sour milk ('milk' + 'barley' + locative).

ga-ti: plea, petition ('let me live!').

ga-zi-in-bu: stake (for impalement).

ga-zum: carding (wool).

(gtildeiš)ga-zum: comb (don't know why some read ga-ríg - the Akkadian is kaa,sum and gazzum).

gaba-diri-ga: enormous strength ('rival' + 'to go over, exceed' + nominative).

gaba(-na)...dug4: to speak against (someone) ('rival' + 3rd person with locative + 'to speak').

gaba-gi4: opponent; opposition ('rival' + 'to besiege').

gaba-gtildeál: strength ('chest' + 'to be available').

gaba...gtildeál: to boast ('chest' + 'to be available').

gaba...gtildear: to put out one's chest; to defy ('breast, chest' + 'to deliver').

gaba-kar(-re): escapist ('rival' + 'to flee'; cf., gaba...zi).

gaba...ri: to confront ('breast, chest' + 'to throw out').

gaba-ri: n., rival; copy, duplicate ('breast' + 'to exchange' - imagines the two breasts as copies or duplicates).

     adj., withstanding attack (describing a door or weapon).

gaba...ru(-gú): to encounter ('breast, chest' + ru-gú, 'to oppose').

gaba-šu-gtildear: resistance, rival ('breast, chest' + 'hand' + 'to place on').

gaba(-a)...tab: to hold to the breast ('breast' ( + locative) + 'to hold, clasp').

gaba...zi: to retreat ('breast' + 'to take out').

gába[KAB]-ra: shepherd boy/girl (Akk. loanword from kaparrum I).

gada-bar-TÚG: long linen coat ('linen' + 'long coat').

gada-dilmun-ù-lal: a dress of Dilmun linen ('linen' + 'Dilmun' + pronominal prefix + 'to hang').

gada-mah-gtildeiš-lá: spread out linen ('linen' + 'large' + 'tool' + 'to extend').

gada-nígtilde-dùn-dù: a linen garment ('linen' + 'object' + 'to bring low' + 'to make').

gag-ha-har-ra-na: a peg or nail ('peg' + 'roads' ?).

gag-maš: a peg or nail ('peg' + 'one-half').

(gtildeiš)gag-si-sá: arrow ('nail' + 'to make straight').

gag-zag-ga: side (?) peg ('peg' + 'side, boundary').

gal-bi: adv., greatly ('great' + adverbial force suffix).

gal-di: mighty (judge) (an adjective for the god Enlil) ('large' + 'to decide, judge').

gal-gal-di: boaster (reduplicated 'large' + 'to judge').

gal-nar: head musician ('large' + 'musician').

gal-ùgtildea: overseer ('large' + 'people').

gal-zu (gal-an-zu): wise; omniscient; intelligent ('large' [ + 'heaven'] + 'to know').

gal5-lá(-gal), gtildeùl-lá(-gal): police chief, gendarme, deputy, bailiff; a demon ('to overwhelm' + 'to force into; to look after' [ + 'big']).

galam-kad5: artfully made ('artistic' + 'to bind together').

galam-ma: exalted one ('elaborate' + nominative).

galam-ma hu-ru: clever fool ('ingenious, elaborate' + nominative + 'idiot, hillbilly').

ku6gam-gam(-ma): a fish (Pomadasys stridens) (reduplicated 'curved; shriveled').

itigan-gan-è: calendar month 9 at Nippur during Ur III.

(gtildeiš)gan-na: grinding stone (?) ('rack' + nominative).

gan-tuš: tenant ('to bring forth' + 'to occupy').

gan-tuš-tur-ra: minor tenant ('tenant' + 'little' + nominative).

gána-ga: hill country ('land' + 'milk').

gána-íl: taxable land or field ('land' + 'to carry').

itigána-maš: calendar month 1 at Lagaš during Ur III.

(gtildeiš)gán-ùr: harrow ('field' + 'to drag across').

gàr-du: a class of persons ('hair lock signifying slavery' + 'to go').

ge-eš-tu: six hundred (gezwedge-u (?); cf., gtildeéš×u).

gi-a-dag: raft ('reed' + 'water' + 'resting place').

gi-dili-dù: a single-growing reed (idiomatic expression) ('reed' + 'single' + 'to plant').

gi-dù-a: reed hut; reed fences; high-quality writing stylus ('reed' + 'to make' + nominative).

gi-dub-ba: stylus ('reed' + 'tablet' + nominative).

gi-dùg-ga: sweet reed, i.e., with a sweet, edible marrow ('reed' + 'sweet' + nominative).

gi-duru5[GI.A]: supple, swaying reed ('reed' + 'fresh').

gi-gu4-ud: catapult ('reeds' + 'to leap').

gi-gun4(-na), gi-gù-na: sacred building ('reeds' + 'decorated temple').

gi-gur: reed basket ('reeds' + 'basket').

gi-gur-še-bal: basket for carrying grain ('basket' + 'grain' + 'to transport').

gi-izi-lá: torch ('reeds' + 'fire' + 'to hold up').

gi...ku5: to cut reeds ('reeds' + 'to cut').

gi-kud(-a): cut reed, used to make measurements ('reed' + 'to cut' + nominative).

(gtildeiš)gi-muš: punting pole ('reed' + 'snake').

gi-na: consent (cf., gi(n)) ('just, firm' + nominative a).

gi-na-tum: security deposit (Akkadian loanword).

gi-NI: a scented substance ('reed' + 'oil').

gi-rin[LAGAB]: pure, spotless; shining; blooming, fruitful; a syllabic writing for gurun, 'fruit' ('reliable' + 'bright' (?)).

gi-sa, kí-sa; gi(-nígtilde)-sa-há: bundle of reeds; abutment or platform ('reeds' + 'mat, bundle').

gi-sagtilde-hul: a type of reed ('reed' + 'head' + 'bad').

gi-sal: reed screen on the roof ('reeds' + 'to be thin and wide').

gi-SI.A: (cf., (gi)ušub).

gi-sig: reed wall, hut ('reeds' + 'small, weak').

gi-šà-sur: sieve ('reeds' + 'intestines' + 'to flow, drip').

gi-šul-hi: a reed or plant that was used as a medicine ('reed' + 'invader' + 'numerous').

gi-UGUN: (cf., gi-gunu4).

gi...zé: to cut reeds ('reeds' + 'to cut').

gi-zi: a kind of reed ('reed' + 'good; high').

gi-1-ninda: measuring reed ('reed' + 'one' + 'a distance measure').

gi4-an: cultically unfit ? ('to reject' + 'heaven').

gi4-in: slave (girl) ('to lock up' + 'he, she').

gi4-me-a-aš: colleague, fellow (cf., nam-gi4-me-a-aš) ('to return, come back' + 'office, function' + locative + plural suffix).

gi6-an-na: at night ('black' + 'heaven' + locative).

gi7-nun: slave (girl) ('to lock up' + 'master').

gi16[GIL]-da: basket.

gi16[GIL]-sa: lasting; of lasting value.

gi16[GIL]-sa...aka: to treasure highly.

gibil-bi: the first time ('new' + adverbial force suffix).

gig-ba: (cf., kibx).

gig(-šè)...gtildear: to cause trouble; to be angry at ('injury' + terminative + 'to set').

gil-le-èm: destruction (cf., gilim).

urudugín-sal: a light metal hoe.

gín-tur: a surface area measure, little shekel = 1/60 shekel = 1/3600 square nindan (sar) = 3 surface še = 36 square fingers = surface of the side of a cube of 1 sìla capacity.

gir-ab-ba: sea fish.

gir4-bil: furnaceman, stoker ('kiln' + 'to burn').

gir15/gi7-nun: lofty noble (an adjective applied to Enlil) ('noble' + 'royal').

giri17-zal: (cf., kìri-zal).

gu-du: anus.

gu...dúb; gu...tag: to align; to adjust (with a string) ('string' + 'to strike/to touch').

gu-la: large, great (cf., gal; gu-ul).

gu...lal/lá: to set out a snare ('string' + 'to place, set, stretch, extend').

gu-sum: impression on a tablet (a wedge) ('needle' + 'to give').

gu-ul: to enlarge; to increase; to make numerous; to be great, exalted; sometimes = gul, 'to destroy' (cf., gal; gu-la).

(gtildeiš)gu-za: throne; chair (cf., guzza).

gu-za-lá: throne-bearer; chair-bearer ('throne; chair' + 'to hold up').

gú...aka: to submit; to bow, to someone: dative ('neck' + 'to do'; cf., gú...gtildear).

gú-an-še: all things considered ('land' + 'sky' + 'barley').

gú-bala: the turning edge ('edge' + 'to revolve').

gú...dirig: to sum accounts ('loads' + 'to add').

gú...dù: to despise; to neglect ('neck' + 'to fasten, plant').

gú...è: to cover ('neck; edge' + 'to extend').

gú-è: wrap.

gú-en-bar-ra: outer throne room.

gú-en-na: river mud; throne room ('river bank' + ?).

gú-gal: chick peas ('chick pea/bean' + 'large').

gú...gíd: 'to stretch the neck' as something that mourners do ('neck' + 'to stretch out').

(gtildeiš)gú-gíd-gíd: an agricultural tool ('neck' + reduplicated 'long').

gú-gir: processing of bitumen.

gú-gú-GUD: a type of pea (reduplicated 'chick pea/bean' + 'ox, bull').

gú-gú-UH: a type of pea (reduplicated 'chick pea/bean' + 'insect, vermin').

gú...gur: to gather, collect, amass (often with -da-; often reduplicated) ('chick pea/bean' + 'basket').

gú-gur5...dug4/du11/e: to cut down ('neck' + 'to separate' + 'to effect').

gtildeiš...gtildeál: to submit (to someone: dative) ('neck' + 'yoke' + 'to place').

gú...gtildear/gtildeá-gtildeá: to submit ('neck' + 'to set down'; cf., gú...aka).

gú-a...gtildear/gtildeá-gtildeá: (cf., úgu...ba-a-gtildear which is the later Neo-Sumerian form of this Old Sumerian original) ('neck' + 'upon' + 'to place [a load of debt]').

gú-gtildeiri3/16: breach (cf., gtildeiri16...gtildear).

gtildeiri16...gtildear/gtildeá-gtildeá: to breach walls ('to submit' + 'fortress').

gú...kud: to cut (off) the neck ('neck' + 'to cut').

gú...lal/lá: to bow down; to kneel; to embrace (with -da- or -ta-); to peer out (with bàd, 'city walls') ('neck' + 'to hang, extend').

gú-tar...lal/lá: to style or dress hair; to bind an animal's mane ('neck' + 'to cut, determine' + 'to lift').

gú...mar: to pile up.

gú-mun: caraway ('pea' + 'salt').

GIGgú-nida[NUNUZ]: a type of (high-quality) wheat (cf., zíz-GÚ-NUNUZ).

gú-ri-ta: from the other side ('side, bank' + 'that' + 'from').

gú...si(-a): to assemble, organize ('necks' + 'to be upright, in order, and still').

gú-šè: up to the edge; to the other side ('side, bank' + terminative suffix).

gú...šub: to be lax with respect; to scorn (with -ši-) ('neck' + 'to make fall').

gú-tar: back of the head ('neck' + 'to cut (hair)').

gú-tuku: mighty; foremost ('neck [for carrying ?]' + 'to have').

gú-tur: lentils ? ('chick pea/bean' + 'small').

gú-un: tribute; load (cf., gun).

gú...ús: to raise the neck ('neck' + 'to join').

gú-za: a jewelry (?) ('neck' + 'precious stone').

gú...zi: to have success ('neck' + 'to raise').

gù...dé: to call; to cry; to say ('sound' + 'to pour out, shape').

gù...ta-dé: to read aloud ('voice' + 'from' + 'to pour out').

gù...dúb: to shout ('voice' + 'to make tremble').

gù...dug4/du11/di/e: to make a noise or sound ('noise' + 'to effect').

gù...gtildear: describes the twanging of bows ('sound' + 'to deliver').

gù...mur: to roar, bray, bellow ('sound' + 'lungs').

gù-mur-aka: hero; professional mourner ('to roar, bray' + 'to do').

gù-nun...di/e: to make a pleasant/loud sound ('sound' + 'fine, great, deep' + 'to say, do').

gù...ra(-ra): to shout, roar ('sound' + 'to strike').

gù-ra-ah: chattering, noise-making ('sound' + 'to strike repetitively, shake').

gù...sè(-g/k): to make obedient ('voice' + 'to apply; to cause').

gù...sum: to repeat; to echo; to talk to (with dative) ('sound' + 'to give, lend').

gù...si-il: to scream with an ear-splitting voice ('voice' + 'to split').

gù-téš-a...sì: to be united ('voice' + 'to come together' + locative + 'to surround').

gù...tumu2/4: to call ('noise' + 'to carry').

gu4: (cf., gud).

gu4-ud: to jump; to flutter; to dance (reduplication class: gu4-gu4-ud); the planet Mercury ('bull' + 'sun').

gu5-ul: great (cf., gal; gu-ul).

gu7-kur-kur-ra: bread-basket of all the lands ('food, sustenance' + 'lands' + genitive).

gùb-bu: left arm ('left-hand' + nominative with vowel harmony).

gùb-kaš4: stud farm manager (?) ('left-hand' + 'speed. fluency').

gud-áb(-ba): breeding bull ('bull' + 'cow' + genitive).

gud-alim: bison ('bull' + 'bison').

gud-am; gu4-dam: a mythological entity ('bull' + 'wild ox').

gud-apin-nígtilde-túg: blanket for a plow ox ('bull, ox' + 'plow' + 'thing' + 'cloth garment').

itigud-si-su: calendar month 2 at Nippur during Ur III.

gud-du7(-du7): perfect, unblemished bull; fierce, goring ox ('bull, ox' + 'complete, suitable; to butt, gore, toss').

gud-dub: ox (recorded) on a tablet ('bull, ox' + 'tablet').

gud-dun-a: subordinate ox ('bull, ox' + 'subordinate' + nominative).

gud è: oxen taken out (of work) ('bull, ox' + 'to exit').

gud éš-gàr: working oxen ('bull, ox' + 'assigned task').

gud-gal-gal: full-grown ox ('bull, ox' + reduplicated 'great').

gud-gtildeiš: work ox ('bull, ox' + 'tool').

gud gtildeiš-ùr: oxen for the harrow ('bull, ox' + 'beam, harrow').

gud-lah5[DU-DU]: ox driver ('bull, ox' + 'to drive').

gud-mu-x: x years-old ox ('bull, ox' + 'name, year' + number).

gud-niga: fattened ox ('bull, ox' + 'fattened').

gud-numun: oxen for sowing ('bull, ox' + 'seed').

gud-numun-diri: reserve oxen for sowing ('oxen for sowing' + 'excess').

gud-numun-gána: oxen for sowing on the field ('oxen for sowing' + 'field parcel').

gud-ra: ox driver ('bull, ox' + , 'to drive along').

gud-su7-ra: threshing ox ('bull, ox' + 'threshing floor').

gud-sún: wild-cow ('bull, ox' + 'aurochs cow').

gud-šár(-a): perfect bull ('bull' + 'to be many; to slaughter' + nominative).

gud-šu-gi4: old ox ('bull, ox' + 'old').

gud-šúhub: grazing or trampling oxen ('bull, ox' + 'to step; to graze').

gùd...ús: to build a nest ('nest' + 'to moor, join').

(gtildeiš)GUL-BU: a kind of wood ('evil; to extinguish' + 'to uproot').

gul-lum: cat ('to fall upon, destroy, extinguish' + 'fertile'; cf., ki-gul-la).

gur-ra: adv., in return ('to return' + subordination suffix /-a/).

gur-2-ul: a capacity measure of 72 sìla in Presargonic Girsu.

gur-sá-dug4: a capacity measure, = 160 sìla ('reed basket' + 'offering; measuring container of either 24 or 40 sìla').

gur-sagtilde-gtildeál: a capacity measure, = 240 sìla, where Civil says the difference is that this gur has been filled from measuring containers topped off with a 'head' of grain instead of being leveled off at the top ('reed basket' + 'head' + 'to place').

gur4-gur4[LAGAB+LAGAB]: a standard size container for wine, beer, and oil, = 10 liters (reduplicated 'thick, round, plump').

gur5[KA×GU](ru.uš(11))...búr: to bare the fangs (sign for 'mouth-needles' ( + 'to send' + 'poison') + 'to release').

guru7-du6: grain stack ('granary' + 'heap').

guru7-maš: grain depot ('granary' + 'interest, profit').

guruš šà-sahar: earth moving workers ('laborer' + 'essence' + 'earth').

gtildeá-e: I; myself ('I' + subjective ending).

gtildeá-e-me-en: it is me; I am one who... ('I' + enclitic copula + 1st or 2nd person ending).

gtildeá-gi(4)(-a): (cf., gtildeagia).

gtildeá-gtildeá: adding, addition (reduplicated form of gtildear, 'to accumulate').

gtildeá-la...dag: to cease (doing something) (often with -ta-) ('to be somewhere' + 'resting place').

gtildcapÁ-nam-ma-da: (cf., gtildee26-nam-ma-da).

gtildcapÁ-nu: (cf., gtildee26-nu).

gtildeá-nun: storage area (gtildear, 'storeroom' + 'noble').

gtildeál...taka4: to open ('to be somewhere' + 'to open').

gtildealga-sùh: nitwit ('consideration' + 'to be confused').

gtildee26[gtildcapÁ]-nam-ma-da: come with me! (gtildee26-na, imperative form of gtildeen, 'to go, come' + conjugational prefixes itilde-ba with locative force + 'with').

gtildee26-nu: come!.

gtildeéme-maš: female tender of goats ('work-woman' + 'goats').

gtildeéš×u, gtildeeš'u: six hundred ('sixty' + 'ten'; cf., ge-eš-tu).

gtildeeštin-hád: raisins ('grape vine' + 'dried').

gtildeeštug(2,3)...gub: to set the mind to (with -ši-) ('understanding' + 'to set').

gtildeeštug(2,3)...gtildear: to listen, pay attention (to: with -ši-) ('ears, understanding' + 'to make available [to]').

gtildeeštug(2,3)...sum: to listen to (with dative) ('ears' + 'to give').

gtildeeštug(2,3)...šú: to stop one's ears ('ears' + 'to cover').

gtildeeštu(2,3)-tuku: possessing intelligence ('ears, understanding' + 'to have').

gtildeeštug(2,3)...u18-lu: to forget ('ears, understanding' + 'great storm').

gtildei6...di: to pass the night ('night' + 'to go'; cf., ù-di).

gtildei6-par3/4: residence of the en priest or priestess ('night' + 'to stretch out').

gtildei6...sá: stay to midnight ('night' + 'to make equal').

gtildei6-sa9: stay to midnight ('night' + 'half').

gtildei6-ù-na: in the middle of the night ('night' + ù-na, 'triumph').

gtildeidru-šè...nú: to lay (heaped-up grain) under the (measuring) stick ('stick' + terminative + 'to lie down').

gtildeidru(-mu)-u4-sù-rá: a scepter of long (years and) days ('scepter' ( + years) + 'days' + 'lasting, far away' + genitive).

gtildein-na: ordinary ('ordinary' + nominative).

gtildeír...DÙ: to cut off (?) ('knife' + 'to erect').

gtildeír...gtildear: to clear the way ('road' + 'to place, establish').

gtildeír-lá: butcher ('knife' + 'to weigh').

anšegtildeír-nun: a type of donkey ('expedition' + 'great, fine').

gtildeír-pa: butcher knife ('knife' + 'branch').

gtildeír-tab: scorpion ('knife' + 'sting').

ku6gtildeír-ús: an inexpensive fish ('knife' + 'length').

gtildeír-zal: scalpel ('knife' + 'to shine').

gtildeìri...díb: to take a path, be on one's way ('path' + 'to traverse, pass along').

gtildeìri-kúr...díb: to take an unfamiliar path ('path' + 'strange' + 'to traverse').

gtildeìri KU-bi-šè...gtildeál: to be subjected ('foot' + 'at their place' + 'to be located').

gtildeìri...gtildear: to step forward; to trample (with -ni-) ('foot' + 'to place, set down').

gtildeìri-šè...gtildear: to place something under the authority of someone ('foot' + terminative + 'to place, set down').

gtildeìri-gub(-ba): step; footstool, pedestal ('foot' + 'to stand').

gtildeìri...gub: to step on ('foot' + 'to stand').

gtildeìr-lam: fruit-cake ('way, path' + 'abundance').

gtildeìr-pad-rá[DU]: bone(s) ('foot' + 'to break off a piece' + nominative).

gtildeìri...ra: to stumble ('foot' + 'to strike, stir').

gtildeìri-sagtildea11[KIN]...dug4/du11/e: to trample; to stamp out ('foot' + 'to harvest'(?) + 'to effect').

gtildeìr-sè-ga: menial(s), domestic(s) ('foot' + 'to apply, do').

gtildeìri...sigtilde18[KIN]: (cf., gtildeìri-sagtildea11...dug4).

gtildeìr-šúhub: hoof ('foot' + 'boot').

gtildeìri...ús: to follow on foot; to set one's foot on ('foot' + 'to follow; to join').

gtildeìri...zé-er: to lose one's footing, slip, slide ('feet' + 'to remove'; cf., ki-ma-an-zé-er).

gtildeir5-gtildeir5ku6: a fish (reduplicated 'to seek refuge').

gtildeir5-ra: courier ('to run, trot' + nominative).

gtildeiskim-ti: recognized ('signal' + 'to stay alive').

gtildeiskim...tuku: to get recognition ('signal' + 'to get').

gtildeiskim-zi an-na: good omen from heaven ('signal' + 'good, firm' + 'heaven' + genitive).

gtildeissu...lal: to cover with a shadow ('shadow' + 'to extend, reach').

(gtildeiš)gtildeiš: plow ('the' tool, par excellence).

gtildeiš-ab-ba(-k): a type of thorn tree; a wood used to make boats and sickle hafts ('wood' + 'sea' + genitive).

gtildcapIŠ-BAD: in the Akkad period, a length measure equal to 1 cubit, 1 kùš.

gtildeiš-bad: a basket with a wooden handle; threshing sledge.

gtildeiš-búru: net, trap ('tool' + 'to spread out' + nominative with vowel harmony).

gtildeiš-dù-a: timber ('wood' + 'to build, erect' + nominative).

gtildeiš-e11: key; door pin ('tool' + 'to exit').

-gtildeiš-en: irrealis suffix, 'unreality' form suffix ('tool' + 'enigmatic background').

gtildeiš-gan...bala: to conclude a sale ('pestle' + 'to hand over').

gtildeiš-gána-ùr-ra: harrow ('tool' + 'field' + 'to drag over the ground').

gtildeiš-gaz: cudgel ('tool' + 'to crush, vanquish').

gtildeiš-gaz-mè: battle cudgel ('cudgel' + 'battle').

gtildeiš-gi: reed bank, thicket, cane brake ('tree' + 'reed').

gtildeiš-gi4-gtildeál, gtildeiš-ki-gtildeál: answering chorus ('tool' + 'to answer' + 'to be').

gtildeiš-gíd-da: long wood; punting pole; javelin, spear ('wood' + 'long' + nominative).

gtildeiš-gíg: a date palm ('tree' + 'black, dark').

gtildeiš-gú-ba: a piece of tableware ('tool' + 'chick pea, bean' + 'to give').

gtildeiš-gù-di: a loud musical instrument ('tool' + 'to make a noise or sound').

gtildeiš...gtildear: to assign ('tool' + 'to deliver').

gtildeiš-gtildeiš-lá: battle ('tools' + 'to raise'; cf., ki-gtildeiš-gtildeiš-lá).

gtildeiš-HAR: dredging (?) work in the canal ('tool' + 'obligation' ?).

gtildeiš-hé: firmament, sky ('tool' + 'abundant').

gtildeiš-hum: bench on a wagon ('wood' + 'to bruise').

gtildeiš-hur: plan, drawing ('tool' + 'to draw, sketch').

gtildeiš...hur: to draw; to make plans ('tool' + 'to draw').

gtildeiš-ì: (cf., še-gtildeiš-ì).

gtildeiš-KÁ: (cf., ákan).

gtildeiš-kad5: stepladder ('tool' + 'to tie, bind together').

gtildeiš-kar2/3: task (cf., éš-kàr).

gtildeiš...lal/lá: to be silent ('tool' + 'to hang up').

gtildeiš-kígtilde-ti: craftsmen ('work tool' + 'side').

gtildeiš-mah: (cf., gtildeiš-kad5).

gtildeiš-ná: bed; bedspread ('tool' + 'to sleep' + nominative).

gtildeiš-nagtilde: wooden water pail ('wood' + 'to drink').

gtildeiš-nu(11): lamp, light ('tool' + 'light, fire, lamp').

gtildeiš-pàr: (cf., gtildeiš-búru).

gtildeiš...ra: to thresh ('stick' + 'to beat').

gtildeiš-rín: weighing scale (cf., érin, rín).

gtildcapIŠ-RU: (cf., (gtildeiš)illuru).

gtildeiš-si4: a date palm ('tree' + 'red-brown').

gtildcapIŠ-ŠAR: (cf., kiri6).

gtildeiš-šu: shackle; haft ('tool' + 'hand').

gtildeiš-šu-kin: (cf., (gtildeiš)šu-KIN).

gtildeiš-šub(-ba): lot, share ('tool' + 'to cast, throw, drop' + nominative).

gtildeiš...tag: to make a religious offering, sacrifice (often with dative) ('tree' + 'to adorn').

gtildeiš...tuku: to hear, listen to ('tool' + 'to get, have').

gtildeiš-ùr(-ra): log, beam, rafter (e.g., of a roof); harrow ('wood' + 'roof').

gtildeiš...ùr: to harrow (often with -ni-) ('tool' + 'drag').

gtildeìš á-zi...e: to commit rape (gtildeìš, 'penis', + 'violence' + 'to do').

gtildeìš...dù: to have sexual intercourse (gtildeìš, 'penis', + 'to plant').

gtildeìš-nu-zu: virgin (said of animals) (gtildeìš, 'penis', + 'not' + zu, 'to know').

gtildeìš-zu: having born young; open (gtildeìš, 'penis', + zu, 'to know').

gtildeizzal...aka: to pay attention ('attention' + 'to do', cf., sagtilde-kéš...aka).

gtildeizzal-kalam-ma(k): the most intelligent person in Sumer ('intelligence' + 'land (of Sumer)' + genitive).

ha-al-ma: vandals (ha-lam + nominative).

(urudu)ha-bu(2,3,6)-da: a heavy copper hoe (Akkadian loanword, hap/buutum).

ha-la: (inheritance) share, lot (cf., hal).

ha-lam: to ruin; to destroy (often with -ta-) (cf., hul(3)).

(gtildeiš)ha-lu-úb, (gtildeiš)hu-lu-úb: oak (?); sapling (?) [one Akkadian equivalent means 'young maiden'].

ha-luh: (cf., hu-luh).

ha-mun: mutually opposing; contrasting, harmonizing; clashing (hum, 'to wrestle' conjugated as Akk. huud, 'joy', conjugates into hadûm, 'joyful' - except in Sumerian there is no syllable 'mum', just the syllable mun).

(gtildeiš)ha-šu-úr: the cypress or Persian oak tree or its resin ('abundance' + 'to pour' + 'tree trunk').

ha-za: to hold, grasp; to retain (Akk. ahaazum, Orel & Stolbova 25).

uruduha-zi(-in): ax (Akkadian loanword, Orel & Stolbova 1318, cf., 1305).

(gtildeiš)har-har: a musical instrument; chain (reduplicated 'ring, bracelet') (cf., kíkkin).

har-ra-an: road (a city on the route to the Mediterranean, Akkadian loanword).

haš4...gtildeá-gtildeá: to rejoice ('lower abdomen' + 'to deposit').

(gtildeiš)haz...aka: to slaughter ('tool' + 'to thresh' + 'to do'; cf., gaz, 'to slaughter').

hé-àm: 'so be it', 'let it be', consent, approval, wish (precative prefix + itilde + 'to be').

hé-àm-me-àm: [that] is our wish ('wish' + itilde + 'to be').

hé-du7: decoration ('let it be suitable, fitting').

hé-en-na-nam-ma-àm: it is indeed (precative prefix + itilde + na-nam, 'indeed' + enclitic copula, 'to be').

hé-gtildeál: overflow; abundance ('let there be available').

hé-...nam-...: let it be.

hé-nun; hi-nun: abundance, fruitfulness ('may it be; numerous' + 'great, fine, deep').

hé-zu-hé-zu; hé-zu-hé-za: knowledge (reduplicated [with vowel alternation]: 'numerous' + 'to know').

hi-a: (cf., ) ('to mix' + nominative).

hi-li: beauty; (sexual) charm, appeal; luxuriance ('numerous' + 'cedar oil, fragrance').

hi-li...aka: to behave gracefully ('beauty' + 'to do').

hi-li...du8(-du8): to apply adornments ('beauty' + 'to adorn; to spread').

hi-li...gùr-ru: to be full of opulence ('beauty' + 'to bear, carry').

hi-li-ma(-ra)-az: joyous (?) beauty ('beauty' + asa, 'cage, fetter' or ingredient in asilal(3,4,5), 'joy, gladness').

hi-li...sù(-sù): full of appeal ('beauty' + 'to rejoice').

hi-nun: (cf., hé-nun).

(gtildeiš)hu-lu-úb: (cf., (gtildeiš)ha-lu-úb).

hu-luh, ha-luh: to scare; to become scared, frightened ('birds/fish' + 'to sweep away').

hu-nu, hu-hu-nu: helpless (hugtilde-(gtilde), hun-(gtilde), 'to hire' + 'none').

hu-rí-in: eagle (Akkadian loanword, urinnu I; Orel & Stolbova #52 *'ar-/*war- 'eagle'; note that AHw says that urinnu II, 'standard, totem', is a Sumerian loanword).

hu-ru(-um): idiot, hillbilly, boor (Akkadian loanword ?).

hu-su: (cf., háš).

hu-úr-sá-gtildeá/ne: (cf., hur-sagtilde).

húb-gaz: slaughter ('athlete' + 'to slaughter').

húb...sar: to run ('athlete' + 'to run').

húb...šú: to trample (?) ('athlete' + 'to cover').

hul...dím: to hurt, cause pain ('evil' + 'to create, make')

hul...gig: to hate ('evil' + 'to be sick').

hul-gtildeál: evil ones ('evil' + 'to be').

húl-la: very happy; joyful ('joy' + subordination suffix /-a/).

hur-sagtilde: hill-country; mountainous region ('holes, valleys' + 'points, peaks').

huš-a: something red ('angry' + nominative).

i-i: (reduplicated éd).

i-bí[BIL]: smoke; Emesal dialect for igi, 'face; to see' ('to go out, rise' + 'to burn').

i-dib: threshold; flagstone, slab; device, contrivance ('to go out' + 'to traverse, cross').

i-gi4-in-zu: indeed!; as, like (used in hypothetical comparisons).

i-lu: song, lament, dirge ('cry' + 'to multiply').

i-lu...du11/e: to sing a dirge ('dirge' + 'to speak, sing').

i(-r): (cf., ir).

i-ti: (cf., itud).

i-si-iš: complaint; lament (cf., isiš2,3).

i-si-iš...gtildear: to wail (to someone: dative) (isiš2,3, 'moaning' + 'to set').

i-si-iš...lá: to sit in anguish (isiš2,3, 'moaning' + 'to hang').

i-dutu: outcry; complaint; cry for justice; 'Oh, Shamash!' ('cry' + divine determinative + 'god of justice').

i-zi: waves (cf., iz-zi) ('to go out, rise' + 'to rise, go out').

í-kú: inclined angle, inclination (e.g., 45 degrees - the angle formed by animals eating fodder).

ì-áb: fat of cows, cream (?) ('fat' + 'cow').

ì-áb-sè-ga: clarified butter, ghee (Old Sumerian) ('cow fat' + 'to make flat [by boiling away the water]').

ì-bí-la: (cf., ibila).

ì-dub: storage jugs, pitchers ('oil' + 'to store, heap up').

ì-dùg(-ga), ì-du10-ga: perfume; good oil ('oil' + 'sweet').

ì-dùg-nun(-na), ì-du10-nun(-na): cream; perfume ('oil' + 'sweet' + 'fine').

(lú)ì-duh/du8: janitor; porter; door keeper (impersonal verbal conjugation prefix + 'residue, waste').

ì-gu-la): perfumed oil ('oil' + 'flax' + 'beauty, desire').

ì-gtildeiš: sesame oil ('oil' + 'tree').

ì-HI-nun(-na): (cf., ì-dùg-nun(-na); hé-nun; hi-nun).

ì-ir-a: ointment ('oil' + 'perfume' + nominative).

ì-ku6: fish oil ('oil' + 'fish').

ì-lah4: a profession (impersonal verbal prefix + 'to fling away').

ì-lí: fine oil (jar) ('oil' + 'true measure; fine oil').

ì-nun: butter; clarified butter, ghee (Neo-Sumerian) ('fat, oil' + 'noble').

ì-rá-rá: ointment mixer ('fat' + reduplicated 'to stir, mix').

ì-sagtilde: best, fine oil ('oil' + 'prime').

ì-si-na: (cf., e-si-na).

ì-šah: pig lard ('fat' + 'pig').

ì-ti: moonlight (cf., itud).

ì-udu: fat, tallow ('fat' + 'sheep').

i5-gtildear[KA.gtildcapAR]: to promise, predict; ominous remark (inim, 'word' + 'to make, establish').

ib-si8[DI]: square ('eye' + 'to crack open').

íb-dam-za: anger ('to be angry' + dum-dam...za, 'to grumble').

íb-lal: underwear (?) ('hips' + 'to hang, stretch, extend').

íb-tag4: leftover ('middle' + 'to disregard').

kušíb-ùr: (cf., kuše-íb-ùr).

íd-a-dug: irrigation project ('canal' + 'water' + 'vessel').

(gtildeiš)ig-šu-úr...DU: to bolt the door ('door' + 'hand' + 'base' + 'to go').

igi-a-a-na-šè: before his father ('front' + 'father' + ni-a(k), 'his + genitive' + terminative suffix, 'unto').

igi...bad: to open one's eyes ('eye' + 'to open').

igi-bala: traitor, turncoat; shiftiness ('eyes' + 'to turn, change, revolt').

igi...bar: to look at ('eye' + 'to open').

igi-zi...bar: to choose; to legitimate ('to look at' + 'legitimate; to strengthen').

igi-dagtildeal: wide seeing eyes ('eyes' + 'wide').

igi(-šè)...dib(2): to pass in front of/before ('face' + terminative suffix + 'to pass by').

igi-hul...dím: to put the evil eye (on someone) ('eye' + 'evil' + 'to fashion').

igi-du: adj. for a lead animal; leader (also read as palil) ('front' + 'to walk').

igi-šè...du: to walk in front of ('to the front' + 'to walk').

igi...dù: to be on the lookout for (with -ši-) ('eye' + 'to raise erect').

igi...du8: to see (often with -ni- or bi-); to spy; to witness ('eye' + 'to crack open').

igi-du8-a: visibility (of the moon) ('to see' + nominative).

igi(-tur)...gíd: to despise, look upon with disfavor or anger ('eye, face' + 'little' + 'to lengthen'; cf., sagtilde-ki...gíd).

igi-gu4: a stylized biconvex geometric figure constructed from 120 degree arcs ('eye' + 'ox').

igi...gub: to look at ('eye' + 'to set').

igi-gub(-ba): coefficient ('inverse' + 'fixed').

igi-gùn-gùn: flashing eyes ('eyes; face' + 'to sparkle; to have on makeup').

igi...gtildeál: to (be able to) see; to understand; to look upon (often with -ši-) ('eye' + 'to place [into]').

igi-4-gtildeál: 1/4.

igi-6-gtildeál: 1/6.

igi-gtildeál(-la): clever, intelligent ('eye' + 'to place [into]' + nominative).

igi...gtildear: to face, look at (with -ši- adds intensity to the gaze); to appear before someone ('eye; face' + 'to set').

IGI-gtildcapAR(-m): review, inspection, supervision.

igi...íl: to direct the eyes to (with -ši-, at a specific object); to view; to look over ('eyes' + 'to lift').

igi-íl-la: choice ('eyes' + 'to lift' + nominative).

igi...kár: to look upon; to examine, inspect; to select (often with -ši-) ('eyes' + 'to illuminate').

igi-lá: (cf., igi-tùm-lá).

igi...lal: to close one's eyes ('eyes' + 'to diminish, retreat').

igi-mè(-/ak/): before the battle; vanguard ('before; front' + 'battle' + genitive).

igi-nígtildein: treachery ('eye' + 'to wander, turn away').

igi-nim(-ma): upper country - from Sumer either the east or the northwest ('to face' + 'east').

igi-nu-du8(-a): blind person - a slave; unskilled worker ('eye' + 'not' + 'to crack open').

igi...si(-g): to see ('eyes' + 'to fill').

igi-sìg-sìg[PA-PA]: an insulting face ('face' + reduplicated 'to strike, knock down'; cf., ka-sìg).

igi-sig5: pulverized (onions) (cf., mun-gazi) ('eye' + 'to be good').

igi-su: (cf., i-gi4-in-zu).

igi...suh: to stare with wide-open eyes ('eyes' + 'to pop out').

igi-X-šè: in the presence of X ('face, front' + X + terminative suffix).

igi...te-en: to unite ('eyes' + 'to soften, allay').

igi-te-en: fraction; proportions; symmetry.

igi-tùm-lá: coveting, longing, greedy eyes; a starving person ('eyes' + 'to obtain, carry away' + 'to weigh').

igi-u4-è-a: facing the sunrise, facing east ('face; before' + dutu-è, 'sunrise' + locative).

igi...ùru: to be on guard, vigilant ('eyes' + 'to watch, guard').

igi-zàgtilde-gtildeá; igi-zàg-ga: select, precious ('eyes' + 'to choose' + nominative).

igi-zé-zé: dry-eyed (?) ('eyes' + 'to cut, shear, pluck'; Akk. ,suhhutum means 'pressed out').

igi-zu: (cf., i-gi4-in-zu).

íl-lá: elevation ('to lift' + 'to hang'; cf., dùn-lá, 'depression').

íldag[A-AM]-zi-da: pleasant poplar tree ('poplar tree' + 'good').

im-ba: loss ('the paid out').

im-babbar(2): gypsum; whitewash ('clay' + 'white').

IM...dirig: (cf., ní...dirig).

im-dù-a; im-du8-a: wall of rammed earth; adobe wall ('mud' + 'to build, erect' + nominative).

im-dugud: lump of earth or metal (cf., agtildearx) ('clay, earth' + 'weight').

im-gíd-da: small, one column tablet ('clay tablet' + 'long' + 'side').

im-gtildeíri: lightning storm ('storm' + 'lightning flash').

im-ha-mun: a dark-colored earth used for a high-contrast dye ('clay, earth' + 'contrasting'; cf. also, im-ri-ha-mun).

im-hul: evil wind ('wind' + 'evil').

im-lá: container; width ('clay' + 'to hold').

im-lag: clump of clay ('clay' + 'piece').

im-ma: last, previous (year) ('the named').

im-ma-al: milk cow (cf., immal(2)).

im-ma...gub: to register on a clay tablet ('clay tablet' + locative + 'to write down'; cf., im-šu-gub).

im-ma-si-im-ma-diri-ga: 'it is too much' - the scream of suffering men or of women in travail (a deverbalized fixed form).

im-mar-tu: westwind ('wind' + 'western desert').

im-me: to be the one for (ì + me + a).

im...mir: to be windy ('wind' + 'storm wind').

im-nun: edge of the civilized world ('writing tablet' + 'great').

im-ri-ha-mun: storm, whirlwind ('weather' + 'to blow' + 'mutually opposing').

im-ru(-a), im-ri(-a): relatives, family, clan ('the sent out').

im-sa12-ti-um: eastwind ('wind' + 'eastern mountains').

im-sar(-ra): clay tablet; document ('clay' + 'to write' + nominative).

im-si-sá: northwind ('wind' + 'straight').

im...šègtilde: to rain ('storm' + 'to rain').

im-šu: paragraph, section, extract (on a tablet) ('clay tablet' + 'portion').

im-šu-gub: list tablet ('sections' + 'to write down'; cf., im-ma...gub).

im-šu-rin-na: oven.

IM×TAK4; IM.TAK4; TAK4; TAK4.IM: to cut; to be cut out.

im-u18-lu: southwind ('wind' + 'storm').

in...bu5-bu5: to blow away the straw/chaff ('straw' + redup. 'to blow'; cf., bul).

in-dal: chaff ('straw' + 'to fly').

in...dé-a: cleaning straw after winnowing ('straw' + 'to pour' + nominative).

in-dub: marked out border ('straw' + 'to heap up').

in(-nu)(-šè)...dúb: to insult; to taunt (with -ni-) ('insult' ( + terminative suffix) + 'to knock down').

in-ga-: again; equally (frequently follows -gim).

in-ga-na-nam: it is also ('equally' + emphatic + 'to be').

in-na: insult.

in-nam-gíd-da: storehouse (rare variant of uš-gíd-da).

in-nu: negation (cf., an-na, 'yes').

in-nu(-da): straw ('straw' + nud, 'bed' + genitive).

inim...bala: to have a conversation; to interpret; to translate ('words' + 'to revolve').

inim-búr-ra: breach of treaty ('words' + 'to dissolve, loosen' + nominative).

inim-dirig: excessive words, arrogance, hubris ('words' + 'to exceed').

inim-dùg: good word ('word' + 'sweet, good').

inim...dug4/du11/e: to say ('words' + 'to speak').

inim...gi4: to answer (with dative prefix and -ni-); to call back one's word (with bi-) ('word' + 'to return').

inim-sig...gu7(-gu7): to (produce) slander ('word' + 'low; small' + 'to consume'; cf., eme-sig...gu7).

inim...gtildear: to bring an action against someone (before the court); to claim ('word' + 'to set, fix').

inim-inim-ma: compositions; wisdom ('word' + 'word' + genitive ?).

inim...kígtilde: to seek or find the right word ('word' + 'to seek, fetch').

inim...ku5(-r): to swear ('word' + 'to cut, curse').

inim-ma...sè(-g)[SUM]: to imagine, conceive an idea ('in a word' + 'to place').

inim-sig-ga: slander ('word' + 'low; small' + nominative).

inim...šár: to search for clarification ('word' + 'to request, implore').

inim-šùd(-da): a word of prayer ('word' + 'to pray' + nominative).

inim-zu: one who knows the (proper) words; learned ('words' + 'to know').

ir-si-im; ir-sim: fragrant aroma, scent ('perfume' + 'to fill up' + 'wind'; no indication of Afroasiatic cognates).

ír: (cf., ér).

is-háb: fool ('organ' + 'foul-smelling').

(gtildeiš)IŠ-gi4: a tool.

iz-zi[gtildcapIŠ-ZI]; iz-zi8[gtildcapIŠ-KAL]: house wall; fire; current, flood ('wood' + 'to rise up'; cf., é-sig4).

izi-gi6-eden-na: shadow ('fire' + 'night' + 'steppe; spine').

izi-lá: torch ('fire' + 'to raise up').

izi...lá: to purify with fire ('fire' + 'to raise up').

izi...ne-ne(-r): to fan the fire ('fire' + reduplicated nir, 'to winnow').

izi...sìg[PA]: to set on fire ('fire' + 'to knock down, demolish').

izi...šub: to hurl fire ('fire' + 'to throw').

izi...te: fire approaches ('fire' + 'to approach').

izi...te-en: to extinguish or calm a fire ('fire' + 'to calm, extinguish').

ízi[KI-IZI]-ur5: coal ('fire-place' + 'liver, soul').

ka-al: clay pit.

ka(-al)-lu5: a vessel, bowl (Akkadian loanword, kalû; Orel & Stolbova #1423, *kalVy-, 'vessel').

ka-aš-bar: decision ('mouth' + 'one' + 'to divide'; cf., eš-bar).

ka-aš...bar: to render a decision.

ka...ba: to converse ('mouth' + 'to give').

ka...dù: to accuse (reduplication class) ('mouth' + 'to build, make').

kuška-dù: a leather wrapping for part of the plow.

ka-dù-a, ka-dù-dù: fierce or accusing mouth.

ka-duh-a: with open mouth ('mouth' + 'to crack open' + nominative).

(gtildeiš)KA-dúb-ba: a field tool (?).

ka-gáraš-a: catastrophe ('mouth' + 'military encampment' + nominative).

ka-guru7: granary supervisor ('mouth' + 'silo').

ka-gtildeìri: path ('mouth' + 'feet; way, path').

KA...HAR: (cf., zú...ur5).

ka-íd-da: canal intake ('mouth' + 'river' + genitive).

KA-kešda: regiment ('mouth; word' + 'to bind').

KA...kéš-(d): to organize; to have an agreement; to put together; to become undone, disorganized (with -ta-).

ka ki...zu-zu: to kiss the ground ('mouth' + 'ground' + reduplicated 'to know').

ka-làl: a sweet person ('mouth' + 'honey').

KA×LI...di/e: (cf., gù-nun...di/e).

KA×LI...gi4(-gi4): (cf., sig14..gi4).

ka-lu5: (cf., ka-al-lu5).

KA-nun...di/e: (cf., gù-nun...di/e).

ka...sag9-sag9: to make the mouth pleasant ('mouth' + reduplicated 'good, pleasing').

ka-sìg[PA]: an insulting mouth ('mouth' + 'to strike, knock down'; cf., igi-sìg-sìg).

ka-sù-ga: an empty mouth ('mouth' + 'to be empty' + nominative).

ka-šakan: supervisor of the fat stores ('mouth' + 'large oil jar').

KA šu...gtildeál: (cf., kiri4 šu...gtildeál).

ka-ta-è: utterance ('mouth' + 'from' + 'to go out').

ka-ta...kar: to take away ('mouth' + 'from' + 'to take away').

ka-tab: to be clogged ('mouth' + 'to clasp').

ka-tar: princely; praise; challenger; a type of fungus or rot ('mouth' + 'to decide; to destroy').

ka-tar...si-il: to praise ('praise' + sil, 'to praise').

ká-bar-ra: outer door ('gate' + 'outside' + nominative).

KÁ.GAL: (cf., abul).

ká-mè: wings of a temple door ('gate' + 'battle').

káb...dug4: to measure or count commodities for accounting or taxation ('string' ? + 'to do').

(dug)káb-dug4-ga: a measuring jar with a capacity of 20 sìla.

(gtildeiš)KAK+LIŠ-la(2): chariot; cart.

kak-ús: goad ('nail' + 'to drive'; cf., bar-úsurudu).

kal-kal; ka-al-ka-al: highly esteemed or valued, precious (reduplicated 'to esteem, value').

kal-la-kal-la: barren, empty ('to be rare').

(munus)kar-kid: prostitute (B. Alster reads munus-kar-ke4) ('marketplace' + 'reed mat').

kar(-ra)...ús: to reach the quay (in a boat) ('quay' + locative + 'to reach, moor to').

kaskal...sig10/sì(-g): to clear a road ('road' + 'to place, put in; to engrave; to make flat, even').

kaš-dé-a: banquet, libation, party ('beer' + 'to pour' + nominative).

kaš-dé...aka: to put on a banquet ('banquet' + 'to do').

kaš-dùg/du10: sweet drink ('beer' + 'sweet, fresh').

kaš-gíg: dark beer ('beer' + 'black, dark').

kaš-gíg-dùg-ga: good dark beer ('beer' + 'black, dark' + 'sweet, fresh' + nominative).

kaš-kal: strong (?) beer ('beer' + 'strong; excellent').

kaš-si4: reddish-brown beer ('beer' + 'red-brown').

kaš-sig5: good beer ('beer' + 'good, fine quality').

kaš-sig15: light beer ('beer' + 'pleasing; valuable'; cf., zíd-sig15).

kaš-sur-ra: pressed out beer ('beer' + 'to press; to brew' + nominative).

kàš...sur: to urinate ('urine' + 'to expel a liquid').

kaš4...dug4/du11/e: to run ('speed' + 'to effect').

kaš4-di: adj. or adv., running.

kaš4...kar: to run fast ('speed' + 'to escape, run away').

ke-en-ge-ra: (cf., ki-en-gi7(-r)).

kéš-de6: a fish measure ('to join, tie' + 'to carry').

ki-a-nagtilde: libation place; death offering ('place' + 'water' + 'to water').

ki-á-ágtilde-(gtildeá): the place of issuing orders (cf., á-ágtilde-gtildeá, 'instructions, orders').

ki...ágtilde-(gtilde): to love (someone: with dative infix; something: with locative/loc.-terminative infix); to show affection ('ground' + 'to measure' = the first recorded euphemism ?, or the result of popular etymology from kam(2), 'to desire'; cf., ki-ná...aka).

ki-ágtilde: beloved.

ki-bad-rá: distant places ('places' + 'to be at a distance' + nominative).

ki-bala: rebellious country, rebel land ('place' + 'to revolt').

ki-búr: solution, answer ('place' + 'exposed').

ki...dar: to break the ground ('ground' + 'to split'; cf., ki-in-dar).

ki...de6: to bury ('ground' + 'to bring; to continue').

ki-di-ku5-da/ru: place of judicial decisions ('place' + 'decisions' + 'to cut, decide' + nominative without/with vowel harmony).

ki-dul: secret; obscure point ('place' + 'to cover, hide').

ki-dúr: nest or den for animals (plural, cf., ki-tuš) ('place' + 'to dwell (plural)').

ki-duru5: parts of the field where the ground is moist and productive; riverbank; generosity (cf., piš10, peš10; pešx[KI.A]) ('ground' + 'moist').

ki-e-ne-di: playing ground; (place of) dancing (also read as ešemen) ('place' + 'to play').

ki-è: exit ('place' + 'to go out').

ki-en-gir15/gi7(-r); ki-en-gi(-r): Sumer ('place' + 'lords' + 'noble; native').

ki-gal: big place; great Earth (as opposed to an-gal, 'great Heavens'); foundations ('place' + 'big').

ki-(bi-šè)...gi4: to restore (usually with bi-, or with dative prefix) (lit., return [to its] place) ('place' [ + 'its' + 'to' ] + 'to return, restore').

ki-gibil-gibil-lá: constant renewal ('place' + reduplicated 'renewal' + nominative).

ki-gub(-ba): assigned place to stand, station; socle ('place' + 'to stand' + nominative).

ki-gul-la: waif ('ground' + 'to fall upon' + nominative; cf., gul-lum).

ki-gtildear: grounds; settled place; place where something is built ('ground' + 'to place').

ki...gtildear: to found, establish (a building or town) (often with -ni- or bi-) ('ground' + 'to place').

ki-še-er...gtildear: to bring success ('place' + šár, 'to be many; abundance' + 'to establish').

ki-šè...gtildear: to fall/throw upon the ground ('ground' [ + 'onto' ] + 'to set').

ki-gtildeìri: path ('place' + 'feet; way, path').

ki-gtildeiš-gtildeiš-lá: battlefield ('place' + 'tools' + 'to raise'; cf., gtildeiš-gtildeiš-lá).

ki-hul: mourning rites ('ground' + 'to destroy; evil').

ki...hur: to scratch the earth; to paw the ground ('ground' + 'to scratch').

ki-in-dar: hole, crevice ('ground' + 'instance of' + 'to split'; cf., ki-dar).

ki-in-du: the earth ('ground' + 'instance of' + 'to walk').

ki-in-gi4-a: (cf., kin-gi4-a).

ki-inim-ma: place of testimony (cf., lú-ki-inim-ma) ('place' + 'oath' + genitive).

ki-ir-ga: (cf., di-ir-ga).

ki-iz: to trim, to clean (of hair, leaves, or vegetation) (cf., guz).

ki-kal-kal-la: the very precious place ('place' + reduplicated 'to value, esteem' + nominative).

ki-kal-la-kal-la: the barren place = the netherworld ('place' + 'barren, empty').

ki-kalag: hard ground ('ground' + 'strong'; cf., kankal).

ki-kid: a place of reed mats ('place' + 'reed mat').

ki...kígtilde, kin: to seek (with -ši- denoting the object of the search) ('place, ground' + 'to seek, scour')

ki-kúkku: dark place ('place' + 'dark').

ki-lal/lá(-bi): (its) weight, where weight refers to area or volume; excavation, grave; cellar granary, silo; shape, arrangement ('area' + 'to weigh, lift').

(gtildeiš)ki-lá: water meter.

ki...lá: to heed, pay attention to.

ki-lugal-gub(-ba): royal place ('place' + 'king' + 'to stand').

ki-lul-la: place of murder or violence ('place' + 'malicious act' + genitive).

ki-ma-an-zé-er: a slippery place ('a place where it slips for me'; cf., gtildeìri...zé-er).

ki-mah: high place; place of honor; grave ('place' + 'exalted').

ki-ná: sleeping quarters; bed, bedding ('place' + 'bed').

ki-ná...aka: to make love ('bed' + 'to do').

ki-nam-nitah: battlefield ('place' + 'manliness').

KI.NE: (cf., dinig and nemur).

ki-ní-te: resting place ('place' + ní...te-en, 'to calm down').

ki-ninda-gu7: place to eat bread ('place' + 'bread' + 'to eat').

ki...ri: to scratch the ground ('ground' + 'to touch ;to gather').

ki-sá-a: socle ('place' + 'to compare with' + nominative).

ki-sá-al-ma-he: syllabic writing for kisal-mah-e, 'in the great courtyard'.

ki-sahar: place of silt deposits ('place' + 'silt').

ki-sì-ga: funerary offering; quarantine hut ('ground' + 'to place, set' + nominative).

itiki-sig-dNin-a-zu: calendar month 4 at Drehem through Šu-Sin 3; calendar month 5 at Drehem after Šu-Sin 3; calendar month 5 at Ur during Ur III.

ki-sikil: young woman; virgin ('place' + 'pure').

ki-a...su-ub: to kiss the ground; to prostrate oneself ('ground' + locative + 'to suck').

ki-su-ub...aka: to kiss the ground; to make obeisance ('to kiss the ground' + 'to do').

ki-sug8, ki-su7: threshing floor, select fallow land whose surface was conditioned to act as a threshing floor ('land' + 'threshing floor'; cf., kislah).

ki-sum-ma: onion-growing land ('land' + 'onions' + genitive).

ki...sur: to fix the boundary ('place' + 'ditch; to delimit').

ki-šár: horizon; everywhere ('place' + 'totality').

ki-še-er: fence; enclosure; limit ('place' + šár, 'to be many').

ki-šúr: snake hole; grave; cavity in the ground ('place' + 'fierce').

ki-ta: below; lower ('ground' + locative with remote deixis).

ki-X-ta: disbursed by X ('from the place of X').

ki...tag: to lay on the ground; to lay the foundation ('ground' + 'to adorn').

ki...tùm: to bury (a dead person) ('ground' + 'to prepare; to bring').

ki-tuš: seat; dwelling place (singular, cf., ki-dúr) ('place' + 'to sit, dwell (singular)').

ki-umun2-(m): "place of knowledge" (school); large beer container ('place' + 'idea, knowledge').

KI-UD(-k): desert land ('place' + 'sun; dry').

ki-ùr: territory; living grounds ('place' + 'roofs').

ki-uri: the land of Akkade ('place' + 'protectors ?').

ki...ús: to set on the ground; to touch the ground; to throw to the ground; to establish (often with -ni-) ('ground' + 'to moor, join').

ki...za: to bow down, submit (reduplication class) ('ground' + 'to make a repetitive motion').

ki-za...bad; ki-za...sù: to make homage far from ('homage' + 'to be at a distance, remote').

ki-za...túmu: to obtain homage; to refuse obeisance ('homage' + 'to obtain').

ki-zàh: a sacred locality ('place' + 'to hide').

ki-zú-ur5-ra: sharp edge ('place' + 'teeth' + 'mill stone; to chew' + nominative).

kí-sa: (cf., gi-sa).

KÍD-alam: sculptor ('to pinch off clay' + 'statue').

gtilde/kinku6: a fish.

gtilde...aka: to work; to manufacture ('orders' + 'to do').

gtilde-šè...aka: to put to work ('orders' + terminative + 'to do').

gtilde-dù-a: construction work ('tasks' + 'to build, erect' + nominative).

gtilde-dúb-ba: hammering work ('tasks' + 'to strike, hammer' + nominative).

gtilde...gtildeá: to work ('orders' + 'to make, deliver').

gtilde-gi4-a: messenger, envoy; message ('messages' + 'to return' + 'the one who').

itigtilde-dInanna: calendar month 6 at Nippur during Ur III.

gtilde-sahar: earth-moving work ('tasks' + 'earth, silt').

gtilde-sig(7/17)(-g), kígtilde-se11/12(-g): evening meal; time of the evening meal; evening; cool of the evening ('tasks' + 'late').

gtilde-sig-gin7: during the evening ('evening' + 'during').

gtilde...ti: to assign work ('orders' + 'to keep alive').

gtilde[-kígtilde]...til: to finish one's work ('orders' + 'to keep alive').

kin: (cf., gtilde).

na4kín-an-na: upper millstone ('millstone' + 'to be high' + nominative).

kìri[KA]-zal: prosperity, splendor; splendid, wonderful ('nose' + 'to shine').

kìri/kir4[KA]-dib/dab: groom (for leading donkeys and horses and as a title of a court official) ('nose' + 'to catch, hold').

kiri4-šu-dù: supplication(s) ('nose' + 'hand' + 'to fasten, apply').

kiri4 šu...gtildeál: to pay homage to, to greet (dative) ('nose' + 'hand' + 'to place on').

kiri4...te-en: to sneeze ('nose' + 'cold').

kiri4...ur5: to sniff at; to sneer at ('nose' + 'to smell').

kiri4-zal: joy, prosperity ('dam in a stream' + 'to be full, abundant').

kiri6...dù: to lay out a garden ('garden' + 'to set up; to plant').

kisal-mah: main courtyard ('courtyard' + 'foremost').

kiš-nu-gtildeál: brightly lit ('the city of Kish' + 'lamps' + 'to have').

kišib-gtildeál: seal-keeper ('seal' + 'to have').

kišib...ra(-ra): to seal; to subpoena ('seal' + 'to roll, impress').

kú: (cf., gu7).

KU-KU: ancestors (?) ('to found; to lie down').

ku-dun...dug4: to profit ('solid base' + 'to heap, pile up' + 'to speak, do').

dugku-kur-dù: a jar ('solid base' + 'mountain' + 'to mould, make').

ku-li: friend; a standard size clay beer pot in range 0.5 - 1.2 liters ('solid base' + 'true measure').

ku-li-an-na: friend of heaven; dragonfly ('friend' + 'sky' + genitive).

ku-mul: cumin (Elamite ? loanword).

ku-nu: to approach; to be near.

kù-babbar: silver ('noble metal' + 'white').

kù-dam-taka4: divorce settlement ('silver' + 'spouse' + 'to leave with a person').

kù-dím: goldsmith, silversmith, metal worker ('noble metal' + 'to fashion').

kù-du8: ransom money (for a slave) ('silver' + 'to untie').

kù-gtildeál: inspector ('silver' + 'to have').

kù-im-ba(-aš...ku4): to lose money ('silver' + 'loss' ( + plural marker + 'to enter, turn into').

kù...lá: to settle an account ('silver' + 'to weigh').

kù-luh-ha: refined silver ('noble metal, silver' + 'to clean' + nominative).

kù-sig17: gold ('noble metal' + 'yellow').

kù-tuku: one who has silver ('silver' + 'to have').

kù-zu: expert, erudite, clever; wisdom ('bright' + 'to know').

kù-zu-nì-nam-ma: the all wise ('expert' + gtilde-na-me, 'anything' + genitive).

ku6-a-dé: fresh fish ('fish' + 'water' + 'to pour, water').

ku6-ab-baku6: sea fish ('fish' + 'sea' + genitive).

ku6-banšur-ra: fish for the (offering) table ('fish' + 'table' + genitive).

ku6-dar-ra: dried fish ('fish' + 'to slice' + nominative).

ku6-engur(-ra-k): fish of the marshes ('fish' + 'fresh waters' + genitive).

ku6-íl: fish delivery ('fish' + 'to carry').

kud-kud-rá: a lame person (reduplicated 'to cut off' + nominative).

kug: (cf., ).

kun-kà-an...za: to bubble (see the definition for za).

kun-sagtilde: staircase of the sanctuary ('tail; staircase' + 'head, chief').

kun-su3/13(-su3/13): long-tailed ('tail' + 'to stretch; to wag a tail; to be long').

kun-zi(-da): weir ('canal reservoir' + 'to strengthen').

ku6kun-zi(-da): fish-pond fish.

kur-(gtildeiš)erin-na: mountain of cedar trees ('mountain' + 'cedar' + genitive).

kur-gal: great mountain - a metaphor for temples and for Sumer as a place where earth and sky meet ('mountain' + 'big').

kur-gi4mušen: goose, geese ('mountains' + 'to return').

kur-ra diri-ga: supreme over the lands ('lands' + locative + 'to be supreme' + nominative).

kur-sig: deep mountain ('mountain' + 'low').

kúr...di: to speak hostile words ('hostile' + 'to speak').

kur7...aka: to inspect ('to watch; lookout' + 'to do').

kur7-aka: inspection record.

kuš...dù: to treat or dress skin ('leather' + 'to raise up, make').

kuš-dù: treated or flayed skin.

kuš-dù-dù: leather-dresser.

kuš-lá: leather cord ('leather' + 'to hang; strap').

kuš-nagtilde: leather water pail or hose ('leather' + 'to drink').

kùš-numun: in the Akkad period, a length measure equal to 2 cubits, 2 gtildcapIŠ-BAD, = 1 meter.

kuš7...sud/sù/su: to level; to devastate ('devastation' + 'to immerse').

kušu/kušumx(-ki)...tag: to crawl; to sneak away; to run ('herd' ( + ground) + 'to touch').


Copyright © 1996-1999 John Alan Halloran, Los Angeles, California. All Rights Reserved.
Last modified on August 11, 1999.
http://www.sumerian.org/sumg-k.htm